تأثیر بکارگیری فناوری اطلاعات بر عملکرد سازمانی و مزیت رقابتی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

2 کارشناس ارشد مدیریت فناوری اطلاعات، دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

3 دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت تحقیق در عملیات، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

این تحقیق با هدف بررسی بکارگیری فناوری اطلاعات در سازمان‏ها انجام پذیرفته است. برای دست­یابی به این هدف، موضوع تحقیق با عنوان تأثیر ویژگی­های بکارگیری فناوری اطلاعات بر عملکرد سازمانی و مزیت رقابتی در سازمان‏ها به پژوهش سپرده شد که نتیجه آن دستیابی به مدل مفهومی تحقیق است. این مدل در بردارنده سه عامل یا متغیر پنهان اعمال فناوری اطلاعات، عملکرد سازمانی و مزیت رقابتی است که هر کدام دارای شاخص‏هایی می‏باشند. فناوری اطلاعات دارای چهار شاخص: اقتصادی، امنیت، دقت و صحت اطلاعات، سرعت اطلاعات و ارتباطات بوده و عملکرد سازمانی نیز دارای چهار شاخص مشتری، مالی، منابع انسانی و اثربخشی سازمانی است. همچنین مزیت رقابتی شامل پنج شاخص قیمت/­هزینه، کیفیت، تحویل به موقع محصول یا خدمت، نوآوری و زمان عرضه به بازار می­باشد.
بر اساس این مدل، پرسشنامه سنجش شاخص‏ها تنظیم شد که بین 85 نفر از مدیران فناوری اطلاعات و سیستم‏های اطلاعاتی در سطح کشور توزیع و پس از تکمیل جمع­آوری گردید. داده‏های حاصل از پرسشنامه حولفرضیه­های تحقیق در قالب یک مدل واحد آزمون شد که نشان می‏دهد عوامل IT به غیر از ایمن بودن، بر عملکرد سازمانی و مزیت رقابتی تأثیر دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Impact of Information Technology Practice on Organizational Performance and Competitive Advantage

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Reza Taghva 1
  • Mojtaba Hosseini Bamakan 2
  • Hamid Reza Fallah Lajimi 3
1 Associate professor of Industrial Management, Allameh Tabataba’i University
2 M.A in IT management, Allameh Tabataba’i University
3 PHD student in OR Management,Tehran University
چکیده [English]

This research has been conducted with the purpose of employing information technology (IT) in organizations. To this end, the present research, titled “The Impact of Characteristics of Employing IT on the Organizational Performance and the Competitive Advantage in Organizations”, was done, thereby resulting in achievement of the conceptual model of research. This model entails three factors or hidden variables, namely, IT practicing, organizational performance, and competitive advantage, each of which has some indicators. IT has four indicators: economic, security, Correctness & authenticity of information, and speed of information and communications. Organizational performance has also four indicators, i.e. customer, finance, human resources, and organizational efficacy. Competitive advantage also consist of five indicators, that is, price/cost, quality, timely delivery of product or service, and innovation & time of delivery to the market.
     Based on this model, the Questionnaire for measuring the indices was designed and distributed among 85 managers of IT and information systems nationwide and collected after completion. Data obtained from this Questionnaire regarding research hypotheses in the form of a single model suggest that IT factors affect organizational performance and competitive advantage in addition to security.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Information Technology (IT)
  • Organizational Performance
  • Competitive Advantage
 

دلاور، علی، 1380؛" مبانی نظری و علمی و پژوهشی در علوم انسانی و اجتماعی" تهران، انتشارات رشد

سرمد، زهره؛ بازرگان, عباس؛ حجازی، الهه(1383)؛ روش‏های تحقیق در علوم رفتاری. انتشارات آگاه، چاپ نهم

مقدسی، علیرضا (1386)، سیستم‏های اطلاعات مدیریت، انتشارات جهان فردا، چاپ اول

Ahituv, N. and S. Neumann (1990). Principles of Information Systems for Management. Third edition, WMC Brown Publishing.

Bhatnagar, R., Sohal, A.S. and Millen, R. (1999), “Third-party logistics services: a Singapore perspective”, International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, Vol. 29 No. 9, pp. 569-87.

Bowersox, D.J. and Closs, D.J. (1996), Logistical Management: The Integrated Supply Chain Process, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.

Bowersox, D.J. and Daugherty, P.J. (1995), “Logistics paradigms: the impact of information technology”, Journal of Business Logistics, Vol. 16 No. 1, pp. 65-80.

Bowersox, D.J., Closs, D.J. and Stank, T.P. (1999), “21st century logistics: making supply chain integration a reality”, Supply Chain Management Review, Vol. 3 No. 3, pp. 17-28.

Cao, Q and Dowlatshahi, S; ,( 2005) The impact of alignment between virtual enterprise and information technology on business performance in an agile manufacturing environment, Journal of Operations Management, 23, 531–550

Chang, J.C and King, W.R; Measuring the Performance of Information Systems: A Functional Scorecard, Journal of Management Information Systems /Summer 2005, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 85-115.

Edwards, P., Peters, M. and Sharman, G. (2001), “The effectiveness of information systems in supporting the extended supply chain”, Journal of Business Logistics, Vol. 22 No. 1, pp. 1-27.

Galliers, R. D., Leidner, D. E. and Baker, B. S. H. (eds.) (1999) StrategicInformation Management: challenges and strategies in managing informationsystems, 2nd edn, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.

Hou, J. and Huang, C. (2006), “Quantitative performance evaluation of RFID applications in the supply chain of the printing industry”, Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 106 No. 1, pp. 96-120.

Keats, B. W and M. A. Hitt (2006). A Causal Model of Linkages Amange Information Systems Dimensions. Academy of Management, Vol. 31, No. 3.

Kessler E, chakrabarti A. Innovation speed: A conceptual made of context, antecedents, and outcomes .The Academy of management Review. 1996; 21(4): P1143-91

Koh, C.E. and Nam, K. (2005), “Business use of the internet: a longitudinal study from a value chain perspective”, Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 105 No. 1, pp. 82-95.

Lemak, D. J. and J. S. Bracker (2005). A Strategic Contingency Model of Multinational Corporate Structure. Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 9, No. 5.

Lyons, A., Coleman, J., Kehoe, D. and Coronado, A. (2004), “Performance observation and analysis of an information re-engineered supply chain: a case study of an automotive firm”, Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 104 No. 8, pp. 658-66.

McFarlan, F.W. (1984), “Information technology changes the way you compete”, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 62 No. 3, pp. 98-103.

Parker, C. S. (1993), Management Information Systems: Strategy and Action. New York: McGraw Hill.

Ravarini, A., Tagliavini, M., Pigni, F., Guimaraes, T, 2002, Exploring the Impact of IT on Value Chain Activities and Performance of Small-Medium Size Companies

Ruiz-Mercader, J., Merono-Cerdan, A. L., &Sabater-Sanchez, R. (2006), Information technology and learning: Their relationship and impact on organisational performance in small businesses, International Journal of Information Management, 26(1), 16–29

Sanders, N.R. and Premus, R. (2002), “IT applications in supply chain organization: a link between competitive priorities and organization benefits”, Journal of Business Logistics, Vol. 23 No. 1, pp. 65-83.

Stern, R. N. and S. R. Barley (2006). Organizations and Social Systems: Organization Theory’s Neglected Mandate. Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 41, No. 1.

Tagliavini, M., Pigni, F., Ravarini, A., & Buonanno, G. (2001). Empirically testing the impact of ICT on business performance within SMEs. In11th Annual Business IT Management Conference: Constructing IS Futures, Manchester, UK (pp. 30-31).

Tseng, S.M,(2007), The effects of information technology on knowledge ..., Expert Systems with Applications, doi:10.1016/j.eswa.2007.06.011

Wilson, Ernest J, 1998, Globalization, IT and Conflict In The Second and Third World Countries, Maryland University Press

 

     

دلاور، علی، 1380؛" مبانی نظری و علمی و پژوهشی در علوم انسانی و اجتماعی" تهران، انتشارات رشد

سرمد، زهره؛ بازرگان, عباس؛ حجازی، الهه(1383)؛ روش‏های تحقیق در علوم رفتاری. انتشارات آگاه، چاپ نهم

مقدسی، علیرضا (1386)، سیستم‏های اطلاعات مدیریت، انتشارات جهان فردا، چاپ اول

Ahituv, N. and S. Neumann (1990). Principles of Information Systems for Management. Third edition, WMC Brown Publishing.

Bhatnagar, R., Sohal, A.S. and Millen, R. (1999), “Third-party logistics services: a Singapore perspective”, International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, Vol. 29 No. 9, pp. 569-87.

Bowersox, D.J. and Closs, D.J. (1996), Logistical Management: The Integrated Supply Chain Process, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.

Bowersox, D.J. and Daugherty, P.J. (1995), “Logistics paradigms: the impact of information technology”, Journal of Business Logistics, Vol. 16 No. 1, pp. 65-80.

Bowersox, D.J., Closs, D.J. and Stank, T.P. (1999), “21st century logistics: making supply chain integration a reality”, Supply Chain Management Review, Vol. 3 No. 3, pp. 17-28.

Cao, Q and Dowlatshahi, S; ,( 2005) The impact of alignment between virtual enterprise and information technology on business performance in an agile manufacturing environment, Journal of Operations Management, 23, 531–550

Chang, J.C and King, W.R; Measuring the Performance of Information Systems: A Functional Scorecard, Journal of Management Information Systems /Summer 2005, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 85-115.

Edwards, P., Peters, M. and Sharman, G. (2001), “The effectiveness of information systems in supporting the extended supply chain”, Journal of Business Logistics, Vol. 22 No. 1, pp. 1-27.

Galliers, R. D., Leidner, D. E. and Baker, B. S. H. (eds.) (1999) StrategicInformation Management: challenges and strategies in managing informationsystems, 2nd edn, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.

Hou, J. and Huang, C. (2006), “Quantitative performance evaluation of RFID applications in the supply chain of the printing industry”, Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 106 No. 1, pp. 96-120.

Keats, B. W and M. A. Hitt (2006). A Causal Model of Linkages Amange Information Systems Dimensions. Academy of Management, Vol. 31, No. 3.

Kessler E, chakrabarti A. Innovation speed: A conceptual made of context, antecedents, and outcomes .The Academy of management Review. 1996; 21(4): P1143-91

Koh, C.E. and Nam, K. (2005), “Business use of the internet: a longitudinal study from a value chain perspective”, Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 105 No. 1, pp. 82-95.

Lemak, D. J. and J. S. Bracker (2005). A Strategic Contingency Model of Multinational Corporate Structure. Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 9, No. 5.

Lyons, A., Coleman, J., Kehoe, D. and Coronado, A. (2004), “Performance observation and analysis of an information re-engineered supply chain: a case study of an automotive firm”, Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 104 No. 8, pp. 658-66.

McFarlan, F.W. (1984), “Information technology changes the way you compete”, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 62 No. 3, pp. 98-103.

Parker, C. S. (1993), Management Information Systems: Strategy and Action. New York: McGraw Hill.

Ravarini, A., Tagliavini, M., Pigni, F., Guimaraes, T, 2002, Exploring the Impact of IT on Value Chain Activities and Performance of Small-Medium Size Companies

Ruiz-Mercader, J., Merono-Cerdan, A. L., &Sabater-Sanchez, R. (2006), Information technology and learning: Their relationship and impact on organisational performance in small businesses, International Journal of Information Management, 26(1), 16–29

Sanders, N.R. and Premus, R. (2002), “IT applications in supply chain organization: a link between competitive priorities and organization benefits”, Journal of Business Logistics, Vol. 23 No. 1, pp. 65-83.

Stern, R. N. and S. R. Barley (2006). Organizations and Social Systems: Organization Theory’s Neglected Mandate. Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 41, No. 1.

Tagliavini, M., Pigni, F., Ravarini, A., & Buonanno, G. (2001). Empirically testing the impact of ICT on business performance within SMEs. In11th Annual Business IT Management Conference: Constructing IS Futures, Manchester, UK (pp. 30-31).

Tseng, S.M,(2007), The effects of information technology on knowledge ..., Expert Systems with Applications, doi:10.1016/j.eswa.2007.06.011

Wilson, Ernest J, 1998, Globalization, IT and Conflict In The Second and Third World Countries, Maryland University Press