مدلی برای پذیرش یادگیری الکترونیکی در دانشگاه‌های ایران

نویسنده

دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت بازرگانی دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

چکیده

هدف اصلی نوشتار حاضر، ارائه و ارزیابی یک مدل مفهومی از پذیرش یادگیری الکترونیکی در دانشگاه­های ایران است که با توجه به ماهیت آن با روش پژوهشی توصیفی و پیمایشی انجام یافته است. مدل مفهومی پژوهش با بررسی مدل­های موجود و با شناسایی متغیرهای موثر بر یادگیری الکترونیکی، طراحی و با مطالعة نگرش­ دانشجویانی که در سیستم یادگیری الکترونیکی در دانشگاه­های کشور مشغول به تحصیل بوده­اند، در قالب چهار فرضیه اصلی و هشت فرضیه فرعی مورد آزمون واقع گردید. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد به ترتیب چهار متغیر زیرساخت­های فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات، کیفیت سیستم آموزشی، ساختار رفتار دانشجو و همچنین ساختار رفتار استاد در سطح اطمینان 99 درصد، تایید و حائز رتبه­های اول تا چهارم شدند. ضمن آن­که شاخص­های تکنولوژی‏های پیشرفته و فرآیندهای مطلوب سازمانی و اداری، به عنوان پراهمیت­ترین و شاخص­های صداقت در حل مسایل ایجاد شده و رضایت از امکانات در دسترس، به عنوان کم اهمیت­ترین شاخص­ها در فرایند پذیرش یادگیری الکترونیکی شناسایی گردید

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study and identification of mobile commerce expansion obstacles in Iran

نویسنده [English]

  • Mahmoud Jafarpoor
Phd Student of Management, AllamehTabataba’i University Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Mobile Commerce is defined as “The use of wireless technology to provide convenient, personalized and location-based service to your customers, employees and partners”. Here in this research we brought application, network, infrastructure, location, security, technical, ethical and legal obstacle into consideration and all proved to be influential unless the location. In this current paper obstacles are identified and put in order of importance according to technicians and experts in information and communication technologies and analyzed by Factor Analysis and Friedman proven statistical tests.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Electronic Commerce
  • Mobile Commerce
  • Cell Phone
  • Mobile Internet
  • Mobile payment
 
  1. الوانی سید مهدی، عادل آذر و حسن دانایی­فرد(1383)، "روش­شناسی پژوهش کمی در مدیریت: رویکردی جامع"، انتشارات صفار، چاپ اول، تهران.
  2. جعفرپور محمود، مرتضی فیاضی و محمدمهدی بهرام­زاده(1387)، "بررسی عوامل کلیدی موفقیت در توسعة دانشگاه­های مجازی در کشور"، مجموعه مقالات پنجمین کنفرانس بین‏المللی مدیریت فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات، تهران، ایران.
  3. جعفرپور، محمود و حسین رحمان­سرشت(1388)؛" ارایة یک مدل مفهومی از خرید اینترنتی کتاب و ارزیابی آن در دانشگاه­های کشور"، فصلنامه پژوهشنامه بازرگانی، شماره 52، صفحه 211-247.
  4. سرایی حسن، (1382)، "مقدمه­ای بر نمونه­گیری در تحقیق، انتشارات سمت، صفحه 133، تهران.
    1. Allen, E. & Seaman, J.(2004), Entering the mainstream: the quality and extent of online education in the United States, Vol.27, Needham, MA: Sloan Center for Online Education.
    2. Al-Gahtani.Said S, Geoffrey S. Hubona & Jijie Wang(2007); Information Technology (IT) In Saudi Arabia:Culture And The Acceptance And Use Of IT; Information & Management; Vol.44,Pp 681–691.
    3. Alstete Jeffey.W,(2001), Alternative Uses Of Electronic Learning Systems For Enhancing Team Performance, Team Performance Management. International Journal, Volume 7, Number 3/4, Pp 48- 52.
    4. Chen, L., Soliman, K. S., Mao, E., & Frolick, M. N. (2000), Measuring user satisfaction with data warehouses: An exploratory study. Information and Management, 37(3), 103–110.
    5. CID.(2005), Center For International Development At Harvard University. Harvard: Information Technologies Groups.
    6. Chen R, Hsiang C.(2007), A study on the critical success factors for corporations embarking on knowledge community-based e-learning, Information Sciences, vol.177, Pp.570–586.
    7. Chen Y, Li L.(2006), Deriving information from CRM for knowledge management-a note on a commercial bank, Systems Research and Behavioral Science, Vol. 23, No.2, Pp.141–146.
    8. CSPP.(2000), Computer Systems Policy Project, Lithe CSPP Readiness Guide For Living In The Networked World: A Self-Assessment Tool For Communities.
    9. Demirkan Haluk & Michael Goul(2010), A Reference Model for ustainable E-Learning Service Systems: Experiences with the Joint University/Teradata Consortium, Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education, Vol. 8, No. 1, Pp. 151-189.
    10. DeLone, W. H., & McLean, E. R. (2003). The DeLone and McLean model of information systems success: a tenyear update. Journal of Management Information Systems, 19(4), 9–30.
    11. Gasco JL, Llopis J, Gonzalez MR(2004). The use of information technology in training human resources: an e-learning case study. Journal of European Industrial, Training 28(5): 370–382.
    12. Gable, G. G., Sedera, D., & Chan, T. (2003). Enterprise systems success: A measurement model. In Proceedings of the twenty-fourth international conference on information systems. Pp. 576–591.
    13. Gallagher, S. (2004), Online distance education market update: a nascent market begins to mature. Boston, MA: Eduventures, Inc. Retrieved from www.eduventures.com
    14. Heo, J., & Han, I. (2003). Performance measure of information systems (IS) in evolving computing environments:An empirical investigation. Information and Management, 40(4), 243–256.
    15. He G. (2003). On the definition and translation of elearning. Chinese Science & Technology Translators, Journal 16(2): 1–3.
    16. Honglei, Lai,V.S.,(2005), Technology Acceptance Model For Internet Banking: An Invariance Analysis, Information & Management,Vol42,No 2,Pp 373-386.
    17. Henry P.(2001). E-learning technology, content and services. Education Training 43(4): 249–255.
    18. ITU(2001), International Telecommunication Union ,World Telecommunication Indicators. Geneva, Switzerland: International Telecommunication Union.
    19. Khan, B. H. (2005). Managing E-Learning: Design, Delivery, Implementation, And Evaluation. Hershey, PA: Information Science publishing. (Website: Http://Bookstoread.Com/Elearning).
    20. Keegan, D., Lossenko, J., Mazar, I., Michels, P. F., Paulsen, M. F., Rekkedal, T., et al. (2007). E-learning initiatives that did not reach targeted goals. Bekkestua, Norway: MegaTrends in E-learning Provision
    21. Kim, K.-J. & Bonk, C. J. (2006). The future of online teaching and learning in higher education: the survey says.. ., Educause Quarterly, Vol.29, Pp.22–30.
    22. Lee Jong-Ki, Woong-Kyu Lee(2008), The relationship of e-Learner’s self-regulatory efficacy and perception of e-Learning environmental quality, Computers in Human Behavior, Vol.24, Pp. 32–47.
    23. Liu, C., & Arnett, K. P. (2000). Exploring the factors associated with Web site success in the context of electronic commerce. Information and Management, 38(1), 23–33.
    24. Liu Yanping & Hong Wang(2009), A Comparative Study on E-learning Technologies and Products: from the East to the West, Systems Research and Behavioral Science,Vol.26, Pp. 191-209.
    25. Lu Hsi-Peng & Ming-Jen Chiou (2010), The impact of individual differences on e-learning system satisfaction: A contingency approach, Vol. 41, No. 2, Pp307–323.
    26. Li Y & Zhang Y(2003). Study on Implementation of training system based on e-learning in enterprises. China Soft Science 4: 70–74.
    27. Liang M, Qu L, Jin C.(2005), The outlook of e-learning in enterprises. Commercial Research 21: 367–371.
    28. Liu, L  And Ma, Q (2004), “The Technology Acceptance Model: A Meta-Analysis Of Empirical Findings”. Journal Of Organizational And End User Computing, Vol.16, No 1, Pp 59-74.
    29. Mahdizadeh, Hossein & Harm Biemans, Martin Mulder(2007), “Determining Factors Of The Use Of E-Learning Environments By University Teachers”. Computers In Human Behavior.
    30. Marold, K. A., Larsen, G., &. (2000). Web-Based Learning: Is It Working? A Comparison Of Student Performance And Achievement In Web-Based Courses And Their In-Classroom Counterparts. In Proceedings Of The 2000 Information Resources Management Association International Conference On Challenges Of Information.
    31. Muylle, S., Moenaert, R., & Despontin, M. (2004). The conceptualization and empirical validation of web site user satisfaction. Information and Management, 41(5), 543–560.
    32. Masiello, I., Ramberg, R. & Lonka, K. P. O. (2005). Attitudes to the application of a web-basedlearning system in a microbiology course. Computers & Education, Vol.45, Pp.171–185.
    33. Martinez, Raquel Amaya & Maria Milans Del bosch. (2007), An dress sam Pedro Nuno “Psychopedagogical components and process in e-learning, lessons from an unsuccesful on-line course. Computers in Human Behavior, Vol.23, Pp.146- 16.
    34. McKinney, V., Yoon, K., & Zahedi, F. M. (2002). The measurement of web-customer satisfaction: an expectation and disconfirmation approach. Information Systems Research, 13(3), 296–315.
    35. Njenga James Kariuki & Louis Cyril Henry Fourie(2010), The myths about e-learning in higher education, Vol. 41, No. 2, Pp. 199–212.
    36. Pikkarainen, Tero, Kari Karjaluoto, Heikki Seppo (2004), Consumer Acceptance Of Online Banking: An Extension Of Technology Acceptance Model , Vol.14, No 3, P 236.
    37. Porter, Constance Elise & Naveen Donthu(2006); Using The Technology Acceptance Model To Explain How Attitudes Determine Internet Usage: The Role Of Perceived Access Barriers And Demographics; Journal Of Business Research, Vol.59,Pp999–1007.
    38. Rai, A., Lang, S. S., & Welker, R. B. (2002). Assessing the validity of IS success models: an empirical test and theoretical analysis. Information Systems Research, 13(1), 50–69.
    39. Rosenberg JM.(2001), E-learning: Strategies for Delivering Knowledge in the Digital Age. McGraw-Hill: New York.
    40. Song, Y. S. (2000). Cultivation course to men of talent and e-Learning strategy of digital era. Journal of Training and Development, Vol.7, P148.
    41. Schweizer H.(2004), E-learning in business. Journal of management education 28(6): 674–692.
    42. Selim HM.(2005), Critical success factors for e-learning acceptance: confirmatory factor models. Computers & Education 9(2): 396–413.
    43. Tzouveli. Paraskevi, Phivos Mylonas, Stefanos Kollias.(2007), An intelligent e-learning system based on learner profiling and learning resources adaptation, Computers & Education, Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
    44. Venkatesh, V(2000); Determinants Of Perceived Ease Of Use: Integrating Control, Intrinsic Motivations, And Emotion Into The Technology Acceptance Model. Inf Syst Res;11(4):342–65.
    45. Venkatesh V, Brown SA.(2001); A Longitudinal Investigation Of Personal Computers In Homes: Adoption Determinants And Emerging Challenges. MIS Q;25(1):71-102.
    46. Wagner, N., Hassanein, K., & Head, M. (2008). Who Is Responsible For E-Learning Success In Higher Education? A Stakeholders' Analysis. Educational Technology & Society, 11 (3), 26-36. 
    47. Wang Yi-Shun, Hsiu-Yuan Wang, Daniel Y. Shee(2007), Measuring e-learning systems success in an organizational context: Scale development and validation, Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 23, Pp.1792–1808.
    48. Wang, Y.-S.(2003), Assessment of learner satisfaction with asynchronous electronic learning systems. Information and Management, 41(1), 75–86.
    49. Wang, Y.-S., & Tang, T.-I. (2003). Assessing customer perceptions of Web sites service quality in digital marketing environments. Journal of End User Computing, 15(3), 14–31.
    50. Wang, Y.-S., Tang, T.-I., & Tang, J.-T. D. (2001). An instrument for measuring customer satisfaction toward web sites that market digital products and services. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 2(3), 89–102.
    51. Wu, J.-H., Tennyson, R. D. Hsia, T.-L., & Liao, Y.-W. (2008). Analysis of Elearning innovation and core capability using a hypercube model. Computers in Human Behavior, 24, 1851–1866.
    52. Wentling. TL, Waight C, Gallagher J, La Fleur J, Wang C, Kanfer A.(2000),               E-learning - a review of literature. Knowledge and Learning Systems Group NCSA 9. 1–73.
    53. Zhang, D. (2002). Media Structuration-Towards An Integrated Approach To Interactive Multimedia-Based E-Learning. Ph.D. Dissertation. The University Of Aritona.
    54. Zhang, D., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2003). Powering E-Learning In The New Millennium: An Overview Of E-Learning And Enabling Technology. Information Systems Frontiers, 5(2), 207–218.
    55. Zheng M, Dai R. (2006). The design of an e-learning system framework. Journal of Guangdong Radio & TV University 15(3): 5–9.
    56. Zhang Y, Bhattacharyya S.(2007), Effectiveness of Qlearning as a tool for calibrating agent-based supply network models. Enterprise Information Systems 1(2): 217–233.
 
  1. الوانی سید مهدی، عادل آذر و حسن دانایی­فرد(1383)، "روش­شناسی پژوهش کمی در مدیریت: رویکردی جامع"، انتشارات صفار، چاپ اول، تهران.
  2. جعفرپور محمود، مرتضی فیاضی و محمدمهدی بهرام­زاده(1387)، "بررسی عوامل کلیدی موفقیت در توسعة دانشگاه­های مجازی در کشور"، مجموعه مقالات پنجمین کنفرانس بین‏المللی مدیریت فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات، تهران، ایران.
  3. جعفرپور، محمود و حسین رحمان­سرشت(1388)؛" ارایة یک مدل مفهومی از خرید اینترنتی کتاب و ارزیابی آن در دانشگاه­های کشور"، فصلنامه پژوهشنامه بازرگانی، شماره 52، صفحه 211-247.
  4. سرایی حسن، (1382)، "مقدمه­ای بر نمونه­گیری در تحقیق، انتشارات سمت، صفحه 133، تهران.
    1. Allen, E. & Seaman, J.(2004), Entering the mainstream: the quality and extent of online education in the United States, Vol.27, Needham, MA: Sloan Center for Online Education.
    2. Al-Gahtani.Said S, Geoffrey S. Hubona & Jijie Wang(2007); Information Technology (IT) In Saudi Arabia:Culture And The Acceptance And Use Of IT; Information & Management; Vol.44,Pp 681–691.
    3. Alstete Jeffey.W,(2001), Alternative Uses Of Electronic Learning Systems For Enhancing Team Performance, Team Performance Management. International Journal, Volume 7, Number 3/4, Pp 48- 52.
    4. Chen, L., Soliman, K. S., Mao, E., & Frolick, M. N. (2000), Measuring user satisfaction with data warehouses: An exploratory study. Information and Management, 37(3), 103–110.
    5. CID.(2005), Center For International Development At Harvard University. Harvard: Information Technologies Groups.
    6. Chen R, Hsiang C.(2007), A study on the critical success factors for corporations embarking on knowledge community-based e-learning, Information Sciences, vol.177, Pp.570–586.
    7. Chen Y, Li L.(2006), Deriving information from CRM for knowledge management-a note on a commercial bank, Systems Research and Behavioral Science, Vol. 23, No.2, Pp.141–146.
    8. CSPP.(2000), Computer Systems Policy Project, Lithe CSPP Readiness Guide For Living In The Networked World: A Self-Assessment Tool For Communities.
    9. Demirkan Haluk & Michael Goul(2010), A Reference Model for ustainable E-Learning Service Systems: Experiences with the Joint University/Teradata Consortium, Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education, Vol. 8, No. 1, Pp. 151-189.
    10. DeLone, W. H., & McLean, E. R. (2003). The DeLone and McLean model of information systems success: a tenyear update. Journal of Management Information Systems, 19(4), 9–30.
    11. Gasco JL, Llopis J, Gonzalez MR(2004). The use of information technology in training human resources: an e-learning case study. Journal of European Industrial, Training 28(5): 370–382.
    12. Gable, G. G., Sedera, D., & Chan, T. (2003). Enterprise systems success: A measurement model. In Proceedings of the twenty-fourth international conference on information systems. Pp. 576–591.
    13. Gallagher, S. (2004), Online distance education market update: a nascent market begins to mature. Boston, MA: Eduventures, Inc. Retrieved from www.eduventures.com
    14. Heo, J., & Han, I. (2003). Performance measure of information systems (IS) in evolving computing environments:An empirical investigation. Information and Management, 40(4), 243–256.
    15. He G. (2003). On the definition and translation of elearning. Chinese Science & Technology Translators, Journal 16(2): 1–3.
    16. Honglei, Lai,V.S.,(2005), Technology Acceptance Model For Internet Banking: An Invariance Analysis, Information & Management,Vol42,No 2,Pp 373-386.
    17. Henry P.(2001). E-learning technology, content and services. Education Training 43(4): 249–255.
    18. ITU(2001), International Telecommunication Union ,World Telecommunication Indicators. Geneva, Switzerland: International Telecommunication Union.
    19. Khan, B. H. (2005). Managing E-Learning: Design, Delivery, Implementation, And Evaluation. Hershey, PA: Information Science publishing. (Website: Http://Bookstoread.Com/Elearning).
    20. Keegan, D., Lossenko, J., Mazar, I., Michels, P. F., Paulsen, M. F., Rekkedal, T., et al. (2007). E-learning initiatives that did not reach targeted goals. Bekkestua, Norway: MegaTrends in E-learning Provision
    21. Kim, K.-J. & Bonk, C. J. (2006). The future of online teaching and learning in higher education: the survey says.. ., Educause Quarterly, Vol.29, Pp.22–30.
    22. Lee Jong-Ki, Woong-Kyu Lee(2008), The relationship of e-Learner’s self-regulatory efficacy and perception of e-Learning environmental quality, Computers in Human Behavior, Vol.24, Pp. 32–47.
    23. Liu, C., & Arnett, K. P. (2000). Exploring the factors associated with Web site success in the context of electronic commerce. Information and Management, 38(1), 23–33.
    24. Liu Yanping & Hong Wang(2009), A Comparative Study on E-learning Technologies and Products: from the East to the West, Systems Research and Behavioral Science,Vol.26, Pp. 191-209.
    25. Lu Hsi-Peng & Ming-Jen Chiou (2010), The impact of individual differences on e-learning system satisfaction: A contingency approach, Vol. 41, No. 2, Pp307–323.
    26. Li Y & Zhang Y(2003). Study on Implementation of training system based on e-learning in enterprises. China Soft Science 4: 70–74.
    27. Liang M, Qu L, Jin C.(2005), The outlook of e-learning in enterprises. Commercial Research 21: 367–371.
    28. Liu, L  And Ma, Q (2004), “The Technology Acceptance Model: A Meta-Analysis Of Empirical Findings”. Journal Of Organizational And End User Computing, Vol.16, No 1, Pp 59-74.
    29. Mahdizadeh, Hossein & Harm Biemans, Martin Mulder(2007), “Determining Factors Of The Use Of E-Learning Environments By University Teachers”. Computers In Human Behavior.
    30. Marold, K. A., Larsen, G., &. (2000). Web-Based Learning: Is It Working? A Comparison Of Student Performance And Achievement In Web-Based Courses And Their In-Classroom Counterparts. In Proceedings Of The 2000 Information Resources Management Association International Conference On Challenges Of Information.
    31. Muylle, S., Moenaert, R., & Despontin, M. (2004). The conceptualization and empirical validation of web site user satisfaction. Information and Management, 41(5), 543–560.
    32. Masiello, I., Ramberg, R. & Lonka, K. P. O. (2005). Attitudes to the application of a web-basedlearning system in a microbiology course. Computers & Education, Vol.45, Pp.171–185.
    33. Martinez, Raquel Amaya & Maria Milans Del bosch. (2007), An dress sam Pedro Nuno “Psychopedagogical components and process in e-learning, lessons from an unsuccesful on-line course. Computers in Human Behavior, Vol.23, Pp.146- 16.
    34. McKinney, V., Yoon, K., & Zahedi, F. M. (2002). The measurement of web-customer satisfaction: an expectation and disconfirmation approach. Information Systems Research, 13(3), 296–315.
    35. Njenga James Kariuki & Louis Cyril Henry Fourie(2010), The myths about e-learning in higher education, Vol. 41, No. 2, Pp. 199–212.
    36. Pikkarainen, Tero, Kari Karjaluoto, Heikki Seppo (2004), Consumer Acceptance Of Online Banking: An Extension Of Technology Acceptance Model , Vol.14, No 3, P 236.
    37. Porter, Constance Elise & Naveen Donthu(2006); Using The Technology Acceptance Model To Explain How Attitudes Determine Internet Usage: The Role Of Perceived Access Barriers And Demographics; Journal Of Business Research, Vol.59,Pp999–1007.
    38. Rai, A., Lang, S. S., & Welker, R. B. (2002). Assessing the validity of IS success models: an empirical test and theoretical analysis. Information Systems Research, 13(1), 50–69.
    39. Rosenberg JM.(2001), E-learning: Strategies for Delivering Knowledge in the Digital Age. McGraw-Hill: New York.
    40. Song, Y. S. (2000). Cultivation course to men of talent and e-Learning strategy of digital era. Journal of Training and Development, Vol.7, P148.
    41. Schweizer H.(2004), E-learning in business. Journal of management education 28(6): 674–692.
    42. Selim HM.(2005), Critical success factors for e-learning acceptance: confirmatory factor models. Computers & Education 9(2): 396–413.
    43. Tzouveli. Paraskevi, Phivos Mylonas, Stefanos Kollias.(2007), An intelligent e-learning system based on learner profiling and learning resources adaptation, Computers & Education, Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
    44. Venkatesh, V(2000); Determinants Of Perceived Ease Of Use: Integrating Control, Intrinsic Motivations, And Emotion Into The Technology Acceptance Model. Inf Syst Res;11(4):342–65.
    45. Venkatesh V, Brown SA.(2001); A Longitudinal Investigation Of Personal Computers In Homes: Adoption Determinants And Emerging Challenges. MIS Q;25(1):71-102.
    46. Wagner, N., Hassanein, K., & Head, M. (2008). Who Is Responsible For E-Learning Success In Higher Education? A Stakeholders' Analysis. Educational Technology & Society, 11 (3), 26-36. 
    47. Wang Yi-Shun, Hsiu-Yuan Wang, Daniel Y. Shee(2007), Measuring e-learning systems success in an organizational context: Scale development and validation, Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 23, Pp.1792–1808.
    48. Wang, Y.-S.(2003), Assessment of learner satisfaction with asynchronous electronic learning systems. Information and Management, 41(1), 75–86.
    49. Wang, Y.-S., & Tang, T.-I. (2003). Assessing customer perceptions of Web sites service quality in digital marketing environments. Journal of End User Computing, 15(3), 14–31.
    50. Wang, Y.-S., Tang, T.-I., & Tang, J.-T. D. (2001). An instrument for measuring customer satisfaction toward web sites that market digital products and services. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 2(3), 89–102.
    51. Wu, J.-H., Tennyson, R. D. Hsia, T.-L., & Liao, Y.-W. (2008). Analysis of Elearning innovation and core capability using a hypercube model. Computers in Human Behavior, 24, 1851–1866.
    52. Wentling. TL, Waight C, Gallagher J, La Fleur J, Wang C, Kanfer A.(2000),               E-learning - a review of literature. Knowledge and Learning Systems Group NCSA 9. 1–73.
    53. Zhang, D. (2002). Media Structuration-Towards An Integrated Approach To Interactive Multimedia-Based E-Learning. Ph.D. Dissertation. The University Of Aritona.
    54. Zhang, D., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2003). Powering E-Learning In The New Millennium: An Overview Of E-Learning And Enabling Technology. Information Systems Frontiers, 5(2), 207–218.
    55. Zheng M, Dai R. (2006). The design of an e-learning system framework. Journal of Guangdong Radio & TV University 15(3): 5–9.
    56. Zhang Y, Bhattacharyya S.(2007), Effectiveness of Qlearning as a tool for calibrating agent-based supply network models. Enterprise Information Systems 1(2): 217–233.